Million people die of diabetes and different types of cancer every year. Current study include effects of major risk factors, as hyperglycemia and obesity are novel risk factors contributing both cancer and diabetes and biochemical pathways in association with these two diseases. Diabetes mellitus can enhance risk of a varied range of tumors, for instance pancreas, liver, early gastric, lung, prostate, breast, acute myeloid leukemia and colorectal cancer. Scientists have substantiated the link of diabetes with increased prevalence, augmented progression & improved cancer aggression. Up to 16% of breast cancer patients have diabetes, and breast cancer is also associated with two major risk factors for type 2 diabetes i.e. old age and obesity. A meta-analysis showed that probability of pancreatic cancer for people having diabetes is 82% greater compared to non-diabetics. This study reports identification of ways to lower incidence of cancer by giving anti-diabetic drugs in the local population and by controlling obesity which is the major risk factor leading to diabetes and cancers. Type II diabetes mellitus (DM) occurs due to insulin resistance in obese people, a compensatory mechanism for elevated levels of blood glucose. As the prevalence of obesity increases, there is also an elevated risk of diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT Analysis of market conduct and structure of soybean marketing in North Central States of Nigeria is aimed at understanding the size, design and behaviour of soybean marketers. The objectives are to assess market structure and analyze market conduct of soybean marketers in the study area. Purposive and multi-stage sampling was used to select 481 respondents. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics. The study revealed that majority of the soybeans marketers were not member of market association represented by 65.4% of small scale processors, 64.2% of wholesalers, 72.9% of retailers and 64.1% of producer marketers. There was freedom of entry and exit in the soybeans market indicated by 90.4% of small scale processors, 91.9% of retailers, 97.8% of producers and 100% of wholesalers. Market information flows among all marketers and advertisement was done mainly by open display. The market price of soybeans was fixed mostly by consumer bargain as represented by 59.6% of processors, 66.0% of wholesalers and 85.6% of producer marketers. The market concentration was realized by the use of Gini-coefficient (G0). The result of the G0 was 0.3685 and 0.3605 for wholesalers and producer marketers respectively. This implied that there was high degree of market concentration and imperfect market structure displayed by soybean wholesalers and producers. The small scale processors and retailers realized G0 of 0.3245 and 0.3053 which is interpreted as low degree of concentration, fair equality in distribution of sales income which are characteristics of a perfect market. The study recommended that soybean marketers should join market associations to enjoy exchange of idea, sale promotion on soybean processing and utilization should be encouraged and market information should be disseminated. Key words: Gini-coefficient, Market conduct, Market structure, Soybean marketers.
Decentralisation is considered an important avenue to gain efficiency making a direct association between local taste and provision of goods and services. Since the provision is as per the taste of consumers, it is expected that this will result in faster economic growth. The association between decentralisation and economic growth has been identified by many studies in the past using data of different nations associated with GDP. However, empirical literature reviews on the association but found that there is no consensus among past researchers over the topic. The state which provides more power to the local government can grow faster in comparison to those having centralised power. There may be spillover impact from decentralisation at the local level including tasks linked to crime prevention or public infrastructure investment. They highlight the probability of adverse economic effects from decentralisation due to local government expenditure spillovers
This research presents the design and simulation of interval type II fuzzy systems (IT2FSs) using the uncertainty avoidance concept and the lookup table method. In addition to the conventional lookup table method used in most literatures for type_1 fuzzy systems (T1FSs), which is based on selecting rules with higher weights and strength, this research presents a novel method for T1FS that uses an antecedent with opposing consequents and leads to multiple rules for each input membership function. Furthermore, this research provides interval type_2 membership functions (IT2MFs) by injecting uncertainty properly. It utilizes the lookup table method to design IT2FS by selecting a higher strength rule for each input membership function. The fuzzy system will then use the uncertainty avoidance formula for designing a multiple-rule system for each input membership function. The new structure was used for modeling a steam chamber process in a scientific application. The first set of measurement data used two inputs and one output from the steam chamber system to train the process model according to the type_1 and interval type II structures proposed in this paper. In step two, the designed model was tested with the measured data, and the model approximated the test data outputs with a reasonable accuracy compared to type_1 fuzzy system. A MATLAB code for data driven interval type II fuzzy structure were presented.
India is facing fresh water crises due to increasing population, Global warming , Water pollution , Industrial waste, Increasing Automobiles pollution cutting plants , Degenerating Hills and Mining and many other reasons. India has Himalayas in North , Aravallis in West, Bay of Bengal , Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea in east , South and West. Rajasthan has semi-arid and arid climate , specially adapted to survive in the dry waterless region of the state. Water problem is the great problem of Rajasthan and INDIA . Due to Scarcity of Rains Interlinking of Rivers like Indira Gandhi canal and Luni River and Banas River can solve the water scarcity problem of Rajasthan.