Plastic is broadly used for various human and there is an increasing concern about the risks for our surrounding environment and health. In particular, microplastics (MPs), both primary and secondary, occur in all environmental pockets and constitute a po-tential warning, since they easily enter into the food chain. Microplastics have the ability to absorb diverse pollutants, which thereby get accumulated inside human body via processes of bioaccumulation and biomagnification. Contamination of MPs in aquatic envi-ronment has presently been recorded as a transpiring environmental threat because of their fatalistic impact on the ecosystem. Their sources are numerous, but, undoubtedly, all are from synthetic matters. The sources of MPs are cosmetics and products of personal care, textile and tyre, abrasion processes of some other plastic products, bitumen and paints for road marking. Due to their low densi-ty and tiny particle size, MPs get easily extravasated into the wastewater drainage systems. Therefore, the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are designated to be the foremost recipients of MPs prior to getting excreted into the natural water reser-voirs. The focus of this article is to put forward an all-inclusive review in order to preferably understand the channels of MPs into the environment, their characteristics in wastewater, and most importantly, the removal efficiency of MPs of the subsisting wastewater treatment technologies, as arrogated by the WWTPs. This review also encompasses the expansion of budding microplastics treatment technologies that have been investigated till date. Then, in the not-too-distant future, effective and standardized techniques for measuring MPs should be developed, as well as a greater understanding of sources and strategies for reducing microplastics contami-nation of treated effluent.
This review article weighs the notion of reducing beef consumption as the long-term solution of individuals’ action to combat deforestation in Brazil. Brazil is known as the largest beef exporter in the world. Its exports have fascinated the Islamic world and it greatly benefits the county’s economy. However, reports and studies against the country’s beef production were heightened by the massive fires in the Amazonian lands, blaming its beef industry for the forest depletion. Thus, scholars and environmentalists created a long-term individual solution to deforestation i.e., reducing meat consumption that consequently affects the economy of Brazil’s meat industry.
Organic farming enhances farm productivity, profitability, and soil health. The use of organic fertilizers and microbial symbiosis with species of medicinal and aromatic plants under organic agriculture helps in the improvement of yield and plant quality. However, the debate on the relative benefits of conventional and organic farming systems has, recently, gained significant interest. Thus, develop-ing more sustainable farming practices on a large scale is of utmost importance.
The herb Cuban Oregano (Plectranthus amboinicus) belongs to the family Lamiaceae which can be found abundantly in the tropics and warm region of Africa, Asia, and Australia. This herb is widely used as a medicinal herb in the Philippines to treat conditions such as fever, cough, asthma, throat infections, nasal congestions, and for wound healing, which can be attributed to its natural phyto-chemical compounds. In this study, it aimed to determine the phytochemical components of Cuban Oregano (Plectranthus am-boinicus) under the soil and climatic conditions of three different localities in Lanao del Sur such as: Marawi City, Lumbatan, and Ganassi. Treatments are T1 (Plectranthus amboinicus Under Soil and Climatic Condition of Marawi City), T2 (Plectranthus am-boinicus Under Soil and Climatic Condition of Lumbatan), and T3 (Plectranthus amboinicus Under Soil and Climatic Condition of Ganassi). Results of the study revealed that Plectranthus amboinicus contains Flavonoids, Alkaloids, Phenolics, Phytosterols, and Tannins as all the three treatments all resulted to positive (+) and it resulted to negative (-) for the R. Sugar. Based on the result, Plec-tranthus amboinicus from three different localities is safe from harmful phytochemical components and is safe for human consump-tion as for medicinal uses.
Mung bean is called in Filipino “monggo” which is a plant species belonging to the legume family. The objective of this study was to determine the germination rate of mung bean on the different types of soil textures. The study has four treatments, namely loam, silt, peat, and clay. A 50 ml of water was added to the seeds from the first to last day of observation. 5 seeds of Mung bean were planted on each type and observed their germination rate in a span of 15 days. A ruler was used to measure the height of Mung bean’s germination rate daily. This study revealed that a mung bean seed grows best on clay soil (exposed to sunlight) and on the silty soil (without sunlight).
The study, titled "The Effects of Different Sunlight Intensities on the Germination Rate of Corn (Zea mays)," was conducted in Saduc Proper, Marawi City. The study used a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). It has five treatments (T1: control, T2: covered with single-layered sunshade net, T3: covered with double-layered sunshade net, T4: covered with triple-layered sunshade net, and T5: covered with four-layered sunshade net). Each treatment is replicated three times and allocated across three blocks. The total area is 16 m2. Results show that the corn covered with a triple-layered net has the highest germination rate of 33.33% after 14 DAE, whereas the corn with no cover shows the lowest germination rate of 11.11%. Based on the findings, T4 has the most significant effect on the germination rate of Zea mays.
The study was conducted to evaluate the phytochemical properties of Euphorbia hirta L. under the soil and climatic conditions of the two municipalities and one city in Lanao del Sur such as: Masiu, Ganassi, and Marawi City. The experiments were conducted in a lab environment. The results of the study revealed that all treatments showed negative (-) in R sugar while positive (+) with the remaining components, indicating that all treatments are safe from harmful phytochemical properties which means that Euphorbia hirta L. is safe for human consumption and medication as perceived by the researchers.
Mental and psychological stress affects the students in various ways. Student mental health has been a widely concern in some certain studies. This study aims to conduct a survey assessment of the effects of mental and psychological stress towards the STEM 12 students in Ibn Siena Integrated School Foundation. Survey questionnaire with 50 respondents from different sections of STEM 12 was provided to determine the effects of mental and psychological stress on their health and well-being. As a result, most of the respondents that have experienced mental and psychological stress are women with a percentage of (68%) and most of them are at the age of 18 (56%). Several stressors vary from school, home, and the society as a whole. The major findings of our study emphasize the urgent need to raise awareness and develop mediation and preventative coping mechanisms to address the mental health of the senior high school STEM students.
The study was conducted to evaluated the phytochemicals properties of Carica papaya. In particular, the study aimed to determine the phytochemical properties of Carica papaya advising the traditional medicine practitioners, herbs users, herb sellers, health institu-tions and farmers on the health and economic importance of Carica papaya leaves. Result revealed T1, T2 and T3 plants showed posi-tive (+) in Alkaloids, Flavonoids, phytosterols, Tannins, phenolics. On the other hand, it showed negative (-) in R. Sugar. This indicates that Alkaloids, Flavonoids, phytosterols, Tannins, Phenolics are present in T1, T2 and T3 while R. Sugar is absent. The result showed that all treatments are safe from harmful phytochemical components.