Zimbabwe’s public health care spending per capita is one of the lowest among countries in the subregion. There is reliance on donor funding on health. Most of the people in rural areas cannot afford the health care. This study therefore examines the impact of results-based financing in improving quality health services in Shamva District. The study’s beliefs were based on interpretive and critical post-modernist paradigms. Qualitative methodology was used. Data generating tools that were utilised are focus group discussions, key informant interviews and participant observation. The data generated were analysed using grounded theory. The key findings are that results-based financing (RBF) strengthened the health system and improved health service delivery in rural areas. RBF complemented traditional input-based financing at Shamva District hospital. The study concluded that cosmetic participation and transactional relationship are encouraged by conditions that are supposed to be fulfilled to get RBF earnings. The major recommendation is that government and development partners should improve provide adequate financial resources and mechanisms that complement RBF earnings that cater for health centres’ administration costs in Shamva District.
Ozone (O3), one of the most important air quality and climate change pollutants, has a negative impact on human health, the climate, and vegetation. Medical research shows that polluted air containing Cl2 gas damages the ozone layer in large amounts. It directly affects the increased number of diseases, especially skin cancer; therefore, predicting the concentration of surface ozone is very important for the protection of human health and the environment. The forecasting of air pollution data for O3 in the real world time series is challenging because it has multiple input variables. This paper presented three approaches for multivariate and multi-step time series forecasting, Vector Auto Regression (VAR), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) to analyze air pollution data in multivariate time series. These forecast models not only take the current data as their input but also what they previously recognized in time to generate new O3 forecasts. We examined the performance of the proposed models and observed improvements of 10 % to 20 % in forecast evaluation matrices, Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) using LSTM in comparison with the VAR and MLP models in the O3 layer prediction.
Abstract - Biometrics is any physical or biological feature that can be measured and used for the purpose of identification and authentication. Its features can be either physiological e.g. fingerprint, hand geometry, the face, the iris, the retina or behavioral e.g. voice pattern and gait (way of walking). The use of biometrics has seen an increase in the invasion of individual privacy due to security concerns. In this paper, we discuss the privacy concerns in biometrics and also provide some remedies to these concerns. Keywords – identification, authentication, security, biometric, privacy, consent
Deforestation is among of environmental challenge in most of the districts in Tanzania including the Kilombero district. However, in Kilombero districts there are inadequate tools for rapid and economical assessment, quantification and mapping the spatial configuration of deforestation. Alternatively, the advent in remote sensing data, image classification and the free accessibility of remote sensing data with acceptable spatial and temporal resolution grant ability to carry out rapid and economical assessment, quantification and mapping the spatial configuration of deforestation. The overall objective of this research were to carry out Landsat image classification and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using Landsat of 1996, 2007 and 2018 in Kilombero district of Tanzania. Landsat image were downloaded from United State Geological survey website and processing using ERDAS Imagine 2014 and ArcGIS 10.3 software. Landsat data were pre-processed and post-classified using ArcGIS 10.3 software while Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC) algorithm in ERDAS Image 2014 software was used for Landsat image classification. The research were as follows, in year 1996 the forest, bush lands, wetlands and agriculture with recoded with 517492 ha (38.03% composition), 279050 ha (20.51% composition), 217996 ha (16.02% composition), and 181243 ha (13.32% composition), respectively. Impervious land cover increased to 120982 ha (8.89% composition) while water bodies increased to 44025 ha (3.24% composition) in 1996. In year 2007 agricultural lands becomes the second largest land use with 349591 ha (25.69% composition) while forest remained the largest land cover with 524685 ha (38.56% composition).While water bodies and wetlands declined to 10851 ha (0.80% composition) and 145042 ha (10.66% composition), respectively. Impervious and bush land were increased to 74494 ha (5.47% composition) and 256125 ha (18.82% composition), correspondingly. In year 2018 bush lands becomes the largest land cover category with 506058 ha (37.19% composition) and followed by agriculture with 365954 ha (26.89% composition) while forest declined to 303923 ha (22.33% composition).Water bodies and wetlands declined to 8158 ha (0.60% composition) and 70399 ha (5.17% composition), respectively while impervious land cover increased to 106296 ha (7.81% composition). While the NDVI results have revealed an increase in NDVI values from 1996 to 2007 imply increase in vegetation density which occurred following the interception and implementation of the national and international environmental conventions. Notable decrease of NDVI values is observed from 2007 to 2018 whereby the high NDVI value of 1 in year 2007 to has reduced from NDVI value 0.1812 in year 2018. Build capacity of local personnel for successful utilization of RS and GIS data, establishment of nursery for agro-forestry seedlings/propagating material and other research using concepts of AFOLU, GLOBIOM and LULUCF are highly recommended in Kilombero district.
In this research work, the leaves of Aloe vera were collected from Amara Pura Township, Mandalay Region Myanmar. The preliminary detection of phytochemical constituents present in leaves was carried out by standard method. The elemental compositions of these leaves were also determined by using EDXRF (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) Spectroscopy. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using Aloe vera leaves extract. (Sample: Silver nitrate) (1:4 ratio) of leaf extract and different concentrations of (10mM, 5mM, 1mM) silver nitrate solution were used. After preparing silver nanoparticles, the characterization of these particles was determined by using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The antibacterial activity of leaf extract of silver nanoparticles solution was tested by Agar well diffusion method on four selected organisms such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherchia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
In this research, the whole plant of Chromolaena odorata L. was selected for the chemical analysis. Phytochemical screening was done by means of standard method. Antimicrobial activities of the crude extracts of the sample were tested by Agar-well diffusion method on six selected organisms. The antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of the whole plant of Chromolaena odorata L. was determined by using DPPH assay. The elemental compositions of the crude extract were determined by EDXRF spectral data. Compounds (1, 2, 3 and 4) were isolated from the whole plant of Chromolaena odorata L. using Chromatographic separation method. Finally, the functional groups of the isolated compounds were determined by FT-IR spectral data.
The sensitivity of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) detection system for liquid sample of medium Z-element, zinc (Zn) was investigated and the optimal method was determined. In this study, Zinc sulphate (ZnSO4.4H2O) liquid sample was analyzed using ( SPECTRO XEPOS ) EDXRF system to investigate the sensitivity of the detection system for medium Z-element. The determination was performed by using five different sample preparation methods namely Method 1 (one drop method), Method 2 (two drops method), Method 3 (three drops method) and Method 4 (seven drops method), Method 5 (fourteen drops method). Sensitivity of the X-ray detection system increases with the sample amount. Among the five methods, Method 1 has easy sample preparation and more suitable for comparison analysis. But for precise analysis, it is needed to choose Methods 5 and careful sample preparation is required. From the correlation graphs (Sensitivity versus ‘Z’), Method 5 has the best smooth curve from the comparing to five different methods. Therefore, it is found that Method 5 is the most suitable method for liquid sample of zinc.
The fruit of Hibiscus esculentus Linn. (Lady finger) collected from Sintkaing Township, Mandalay Region was selected for the chemical investigations. Firstly, the phytochemical investigation of the sample was tested to study the phytochemical constituents. It consists of alkaloid, flavonoid, steroid, terpene, polyphenol, glycoside, phenolic, tannin, saponin, carbohydrate and lipophenol. The nutritional values of the sample were tested by using various methods. The sample consists of ash (4.45%), moisture (16.1%), oil (0.53 %), nitrogen (0.6445%), protein (4.0281 %), carbohydrate (5.8 %), fiber (9.5 %). Then, the mineral contents of the sample were determined by using EDXRF method. The amount of potassium is the highest percent (2.409 %) in this sample. The vitamin C content of the sample is 20.8 mg/ 100 g by using iodometric titration method. Fur-thermore, the antimicrobial activities of three solvents extracts of sample were determined by agar-well diffusion method on six selected organisms namely Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus pumilus, Candida albicans, E. coli. Ethyl acetate extract gives rise to high activities on all tested organisms. Finally, the antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of the sample was determined by using DPPH Radical Scavenging Assay. The IC50 values of ethanol extract of the sample was found to be 66.48 mg/ml.
Abstract The principle of taxation is very relevant to the practice of administration of deceased estate. Although, this article is not intended to give full detailed discussion on the various classes of taxes generally. The main objective is to explain the position and relevant of taxes to succession. That is to expose the impact of tax to the concept of Estate Administration and equally to enable the readers to understand how principle of taxes operates under the rule of estate administration. It must be stated further that the relevance of taxation to all sectors of life cannot be over emphasized particularly in this aspect, administration of deceased estate. The nature of application the assets inherited by the beneficiaries will determine the estate duty to be charged by the tax authority. Aside this, the article also deals with taxation in the context of wills and the maximization of liability to tax in order to understand how the basic rule of taxation would apply to the situation of a given demised estate/ assets for continuous sustainable development. Another concern area of this work is to identify where the liability would fall. Keywords: Taxation, Estate, Administration, Deceased.
Lecturers’ migration during accreditation in Nigerian University and other African Universities has becomes an issue that needed due attention and a means to save our educational standard in the country and beyond. Accreditation is a critical process of setting standard and quality Education in universities; and application of information technology to its processes is a great milestone towards realizing its goal and objectives. This does not only give good result during the accreditation exercise but also help to restrict unduly lecturers’ migration before or during the university accreditation process as well as reduction in time consumed. It also reduces the tediousness and financial implication that come up with the process.
Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker is known as the nannwin net or sannwin net in Myanmar. Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker was collected from Kyaukse township, Mandalay Region. Morphological, histological and phytochemical studies of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker were carried out, to get their correct identification. In morphological study, this plant was perennial rhizomatous herbs. Leaves were simple and alternate. The aerial pseudo-stem formed by leaf-sheaths. Inflorescences was tubular spike, axillary, with 1-2 flowers. In histological studies, stomata are present on both surfaces but numerous on lower surface than on the upper surface, tetracytic types. The vascular bundles of midrib and petiole are arranged in a crescent shape, collateral type. The vascular bundles of stem are arranged in a ring shape. In the phytochemical studies in the rhizome of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker showed the presence of alkaloid, glycoside, flavonoid, phenol, polyphenol, lipophenol, saponin, tannin, terpene, steroid but reducing sugar is absent.
Piezoelectric materials have a unique property of gaining a potential across its surface when subjected to some sort of distortion. This generated power can be used to provide some useful power. The energy extracted from the piezoelectric transducer is not constant and has a lot of fluctuations in it. We aim to reduce these fluctuations by using the external circuits with the piezoelectric transducer. The focus of this paper is to get an enhanced and constant power from the piezoelectric material. A new technique of electric energy generation is presented in this paper using mechanical excited piezoelectric material. This technique called “DOUBLE SYNCHRONIZED SWITCH HARVESTING TECHNIQUE” treats the output voltage of the piezoelectric material non-linearly. It consists of an intermediate stage, which boosts the harvested power irrespective of the load connected. This technique significantly increases the electromechanical conversion capability of the piezoelectric material. For wide range of connected loads, this technique gives a fixed harvested energy compared with the standard circuit; we are getting gain of about 250% in terms of maximum power using new technique. Mathematical model of the system is done. Simulations and calculations at 105.3 Hz frequency of the input current (piezoelectric micro generator), shows the validity of this method.
This paper proposes the Mean, Variance and Standard Deviation for density function for the random variable “Staying n number of persons in the system in a particular interval”.
The graphs of density function have inspired to take many extensions of it. This paper is the stem from the attracting characteristics of the distribution. This paper studies some more theoretical properties of the density curves.
Probability is useful among other things since we use it to make sense of the world around us. We use it to make inferences about the things that we do not see directly. And this is done by using probability distributions. We have already seen some of the distributions. Several distributions have been developed by some transformations on the existing distributions. First part of the paper is the estimating one of the distributions developed by smoothing techniques of the histograms and in the second part is the cumulative distribution function of estimated distribution.
Groundwater is a precious resource that covers wide geographical extent. Proper evaluation is required in order to ensure prudent use of groundwater resources. Lack of proper knowledge accounting distribution of groundwater potential zones (GWPZS) has a negative implication on groundwater exploitation and management as the area will be explored with higher uncertainties. The objective of this study is to delineate the GWPZS in Dodoma City, Tanzania, using a Geographic Information System (GIS) based multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) technique. Various thematic layers which influence groundwater occurrence such as lithology, lineament density, drainage density, slope and land use/cover maps were used. The final groundwater potential map was prepared by assigning appropriate weightage and theme classes’ ranks to different thematic layers using Saaty’s analytic hierarchy approach. Following weightage and ranking, the rasterized and reclassified thematic layers were integrated using weight overlay tool of Arc Map 10 to generate the overall groundwater potential map. The integrated map shows different zones of groundwater prospects; very high (3% of the area), high (8% of the area), moderate (28% of the area), while poor and very poor are made up of (62% of the area). The very good potential areas are mainly concentrated along the Hombolo dam unit. This study clearly highlights the efficacy of GIS-based MCDA as useful modern approach for proper groundwater resources evaluation; providing quick prospective guides for groundwater exploration and exploitation. Further studies should focus in verifying and enhancement of the results by introducing more verified values for weights as well as exploring other factors that may contribute towards changing GWPZS.
Today, the world has more interest to expand the renewable energy resources because of shortage of permanent resources. Solar energy is the essential topology resource that has thousands of applications especially in sunshine countries. Several researches have been established and examined in lab to modify and maximize the outputs from solar systems. This paper provides a dis-tinct solar system composed of two panels, fixed and tracking, connected in parallel and a controller Arduino program is used in design of the control unit to study the outputs whether from individual panels or from the integrated panels. Finally, analysis of solar panels' performance is evaluated and discussed.
The aim of this study is to examine and to evaluate the problems which people face during the financial market during choosing Islamic bank using the z-testing. The history of conventional banks of Pakistan is very good in comparison to the Islamic banks. Islamic banking was introduced in Pakistan in 1970 to meet the religious and economic needs of the people of Pakistan, wider steps have been taken in 1980 which was modified to accommodate transactions are not interest-based banking system in Pakistan. In 2002 al meezan investment bank changes itself into a complete Islamic commercial bank and transformed it’s named as “meezan bank”. Islamic banking industry in Pakistan is in its early stages; very few banks are operating in this sector which performs pure Islamic banking. In this research, we have tried to highpoint some of the problems that are producing problems for the progress of Islamic banking. This research will give the results of research carried out mainly with people who currently use conventional and Islamic banking and have Islamic banking knowledge
In this paper, Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (Amyauk-San-Bin), was collected from Magway township, Magway Region. Chemical constituent of Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (Amyauk-San-Bin) was examined by phytochemical test. The pure organic compounds were isolated by column separation method. The partial structures of pure organic compound (PPH-1) have been described as follows using sophisticated spectroscopic methods such as Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1HNMR), Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C NMR), Double Quantum Filtered 1H–H Correlation Spectroscopy (DQF-COSY), Heteronuclear Multiple Quantum Coherence (HMQC), Distortionless Enhancement by Polarization Transfer (DEPT) and Heteronuclear Multiple Bond Coherence (HMBC) spectral data respectively. Key words: Couroupita Guianensis Aubl., Thin Layer Chromatography, Column Chromatography,FT-IR
ABSTRACT Water is one of the most important natural resources on earth. All animal and plant lives require water for survival. Water intended for human consumption must be free from chemical substances and micro-organisms that may be a hazard to health. Sagaing Hill is not only one of the most famous historical places but also the main Buddhism Sermon distributional places in Myanmar. This research conducted about assessments of water quality in Ayeyarwaddy River that supplied water resources to the Monastery in Sagaing Hill, Sagaing Region where two river water samples and two other samples from Tank (2) and Tank (3) of monastery were collected in three seasons. The physicochemical parameters of all water samples such as color, turbidity, pH values, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness, total alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, chloride, sulphate and iron were determined by AOAC method and complex metric titration method. Moreover, the bacteriological examinations of water samples were also carried out in Public Health Laboratory of Mandalay under Ministry of Health and Sports. Furthermore, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of all water samples were studied in Ecological laboratory. Hence this research has been conducted to determine the various physicochemical parameters of water from Sagaing Hill and Ayeyarwaddy River showing that the high contents of TDS (346 mg/L), Total alkalinity (130 mg/L), Total hardness (40 mg/L) and sulphate (118 mg/L) are not suitable for direct drinking as well as there are two bacteria groups of Probable Coliform Count and Escherichia coil Count in both types of river water and water in monastery. Key Words: water quality, AOAC, COD, BOD, total alkalinity
One of the Myanmar traditional medicinal plants, Uncaria macrophylla Wall. (local name-Nabu-saymakhan) was selected for the isolation of bioactive compound and its structure identification. The phytochemical screening of the whole plant of Uncaria macrophylla was done and it consists of some phytochemical constituents such as alkaloid, glycoside, flavonoid, polyphenol, sugar, lipophilic, terpene, sterol, saponin and phenolic compounds respectively. The pure organic compound (TLN-1) was isolated from the whole plant of Uncaria macrophylla by thin layer and column chromatographic separation techniques. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of the pure isolated compound were tested using Agar-well diffusion method on six microorganisms. The molecular formula determination was done by using FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT and HMQC spectroscopy and Mass spectrometry. The complete structure of sterol derivative compound (TLN-1) was elucidated by applying 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as EI-Mass spectrometry.
Critical Infrastructures are mostly getting older and non compliant with digital encryption. Legacy in the sense that they are of economic value ,national assets but old. Pdia(password delag intelligent algorithm ) is the concatenation of two NIST algorithm to arrive at a model that will protect our legacy interoperability,especially in telecoms industry
Probability is useful among other things since we use it to make sense of the world around us. We use it to make inferences about the things that we do not see directly. And this is done by using probability distributions. We have already seen some of the distributions. Several distributions have been developed by some transformations on the existing distributions. This paper proposes a new truncated continuous probability density function for the eclectic random variables.
Students’ background knowledge at entry level to university is a national concern. Experience revealed that lack of knowledge and immature conceptions from prior learning (upper secondary schools) affect not only cognitive part of subsequent learning but also affective domain. With this background, the present study aimed to use students’ entry level difficulties as spring board for further progression. Data collected using a pre-test in calculus revealed that good number of students have overgeneralization that limit is a substitution, a boundary; and hard to interpret result obtained from procedural computation. Besides they demonstrate actual view of infinity, provide correct answer for wrong reasons, and make procedural errors. Accordingly, an intervention based on a concept change approach was prepared and implemented in a cooperative learning environment. The t-test analysis revealed significance difference in students gain. Thus, it is recommended that instead of blaming incoming students for their lack of the required pre understanding, better to use error analysis of their current understanding as spring board to prepare scaffolding strategy and intervene accordingly.