This paper presents the simulation of Graph-Theoretic Model and GSM-enabled Smart Bin prototype for strategically enhancing the garbage bin deployment and optimizing the garbage collection of municipal solid waste. Garbage Collection has been a problem of every municipalities and/or cities due to its rapid population growth and urbanization. Generally, the higher the economic development and rate of urbanization, the greater the amount of solid waste produced. Hence, this study developed this prototypes integrating the concept of Dominant Set inspired by Dominating Set in Graph Theory and K-Means Clustering method to enhance the garbage bin deployment and to optimize the collection of municipal waste. Data preparation, developing the prototypes, simulating the prototypes and collecting results were conducted. The findings can be summarized as follows. (1) Dominant Set able to suggest the best and unnecessary locations for the deployment of Smart Bins in the city and/or in municipality. (2) The simulation of the Graph-Theoretic model and the GSM-enabled Smart Bin prototype helps transmit Smart Bin information, monitor Smart Bins’ garbage volume (in cubic meter) in real-time, clustering Smart Bins and accumulate each clusters’ garbage volume (in cubic meter), and determine each clusters’ garbage status if it’s ready for collection or not. (3) The method of clustering Smart Bins help in getting the approximate amount of municipal solid waste in each cluster for optimal collection with least possible time.
This study examined the impacts of community banking on small scale farmers in Kailahun District. A convenient sampling procedure was used to select One hundred and fifty respondents which include community bank workers and farmers in the study area. Excel software was the major statistical tool used to analyze the data collected from the study area from the research, it was found out that the higher the interest rate, the lower the demand for loan, although this did not depict in the secondary data collected from the study area. In addition, high interest rates cripple infant farmers. That is, higher interest rates tend to have an adverse effect on the development or growth of the farmers or businesses in Sierra Leone since they depend very much on availability and accessibility to funds at reasonable or favourable rates.
-This research talks about the effect of Density on Gravity and also includes information about Electromagnetism,and new information about Gravity.
Urban Development is very much required to meet the necessities of growing urban population and urban land due to urbanization. Land acquisition is essential for urban development and socio-economic progress of the society, but it causes agony to the people rehabilitated from their homeland, and their loss of livelihood and communal affections. Also in the land acquisition process, the fruits of development are being enjoyed by, Private people and the government institutes, but not the Project Affected Persons (PAPs). Land being a state subject, the land acquisition for the urban development projects had been a tedious, challenging and disappointing in many cases across India, since independence. After liberalization, private sector participation increased diversely and Government actively assisted the private sector, in acquiring the land. The land acquisition case studies of Navi Mumbai and Greater Noida were studied, to assess the hitches being faced by the government, Project Affected Persons (PAPs) in the process. The Navi Mumbai land acquisition has begun in the year 1970, before the liberalization of Indian Economy, by CIDCO, whereas the U.P. government in 2007, initiated the acquisition of Greater Noida after liberalization. The process of land acquisition has taken different progresses over the years, which was completed, with many agitations, meetings, negotiations, agreements and various compensation packages in Navi Mumbai. In contrary, the situation in Greater Noida has come across, misuse of urgency clause, agitations, negotiations and court cases, which was disciplined only after the interference of the Hon’ble Supreme Court of India. In this paper, the land acquisition processes are compared, before and after liberalization, Compensation and R&R packages and different issues in both Navi Mumbai and Greater Noida. Finally, different variables are identified from land acquisition literature and studied in the both the case studies.
Background: Malaria transmission through blood transfusion can lead to serious and even deadly complications in infected blood recipients if not adequately managed. A cost-effective method for routine screening of blood donors could therefore improve the security of transfused patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of apDia Malaria Antigen ELISA test for the detection of Plasmodium spp. pLDH antigen (pLDH ELISA) in blood donors at the Yaounde Central Hospital Blood Bank. Methods: A cross-sectional survey on Plasmodium infections among 165 blood donors was carried out between August and December 2019. Using EDTA coated tubes, blood samples were collected and analysed for the presence of malaria parasites through pLDH ELISA and pLDH RDT. Using the microscopy as the gold standard, the performance parameters of ELISA pLDH, i.e. sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR +/-), and predictive values were determined and compared to that of a pLDH RDT. Results: The overall prevalence of Plasmodium infections in tested blood donors was 15.7% (26/165) and 38.8% (63/165) from the pLDH RDT and the pLDH ELISA tests respectively versus 18.8% (31/165) obtained from the microscopy. Plasmodium falciparum species was present in 100% of the infected donors. Only one case of mixed infection (Plasmodium falciparum / Plasmodium malariae) was recorded. The pLDH ELISA test displayed a sensitivity of 93.3%, a negative predictive value of 97.8%, a positive predictive value of 44.4%, a posi-tive likelihood ratio of 3.3 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.09. The pLDH RDT had lower performance parameters with a sensitivity of 22.5%, a positive predictive value of 26.9%, a negative predictive value of 82.7%, a positive likelihood ratio of 1.6 and a negative likeli-hood ratio of 0.9. However, the specificity (71.5%) of the pLDH ELISA test was lower than that of the pLDH RDT kit (85.8%). Conclusion: The current study provides a strong diagnostic evidence for apDia Malaria Antigen ELISA, making it an interesting tool for mass screening of blood donors to reduce the risk of transfusion malaria in Cameroon.
The objective of this research study is to examine the potentials of a novel environmentally friendly pulping process in converting some selected Nigeria cultivated agro-wastes into high yield paper pulp. The chemical and morphological characteristics of Ten (10) Nigerian cultivated agro-based fibers were investigated. Pulping trials were carried out using the monoethanolamine (MEA) process comparing the potentials of each agro-biomass in furnishing high yield pulp. The operating conditions such as the concentration of the cooking liquor (50%, 75%, 100%), the maximum cooking temperature (150, 160, 170oC) and cooking time (60, 90, 120minutes) were applied systematically to establish optimal pulping conditions and optimum result. The lignin content of EFB (18.29%) was low; indicating that EFB should be easier to pulp. The optimum cooking conditions for MEA pulping were 75% MEA concentration, 90 minutes cooking time, and 150°C cooking temperature. The laboratory-scale experimental results indicated that MEA pulping process is particularly well suited for the pulping of agro-based fibers e.g. EFB of Oil Palm, which was de-lignified to a low kappa number value of 18.6, pulp yield of 49.93% and screen yield of 46.27% recording a reject of only 3.66%. It was observed that most of the materials with the exception of wheat straw and kenaf bast fiber showed a similar lignin content (around 18%), with rice straw and corn stalk showing slight variation. More variations were observed in the holocellulose and α-cellulose contents; also, sugar cane bagasse showed the highest percentage of α-cellulose with respect to total holocellulose. Comparing data on holocellulose, α-cellulose and lignin of the ten (10) agro base fiber investigated, it could be observed that EFB has slightly lower α- cellulose and holocellulose contents than all the agro-base fiber investigated with the exception of CFB, wheat and rice, but slightly similar in lignin contents only to pineapple leaves, bagasse and CBF. Based on these results, it seems appropriate to use EFB as a cellulose source suitable for the production of cellulose pulp and paper. MEA process is more economically attractive given its high pulp yield, despite the significant increase in chemical demand for bleaching. MEA pulping is a good alternative to soda pulping furnishing high pulp yield with less cooking temperature, i.e. 150oC, thereby saving a considerable amount of energy with less odoriferous pollutants and pollution load associated with the soda process.
Beta-lactam are the antibiotic agents used to treat a patients with a bacterial infection worldwide, now a days the great threat of usage of antibiotic due to uncontrollable mutation in infectious gram negative and gram positive bacteria to get resistance against strong environmental pressure. More than 2000 beta-lactamases are available with unique amino acid sequence among them the most clinically important beta-lactamases are penicillinase, cephalosporinases, extended spectrum of beta-lactamase(ESBL) and carbapenem hydrolyzing enzyme have potent antibiotic resistant. Many beta-lactamase inhibitor also available with a small significant antibiotic properties like Clavulanic acid, Sulbactam and Tazobactam. In this mini review I tried to compromise the fact about origin, classification, properties, mechanism of action of beta-lactamases and itL