Abstract This paper outlines experimental study on enhancing crack-resistance behavior of concrete materials by combined effects of TiO2 Nanoparticles (TNPs) and Waste Plastic Fibers (WPFs). To enhance conventional concrete materials; cement was partially substituted with wt. % of (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5) TNPs and sand partially substituted with WPFs by wt. % of (0, 0.2 and 0.4) for C-25 grade concrete. The properties of modified and unmodified concrete after 3, 7 and 28 days of curing time have been tested. The test results of combined effects of TNPs and WPFs indicated maximum enhancement in both mechanical and durability properties for all samples. The concrete properties have been tested via Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), XRD (X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry – Thermo-Gravimetry analysis (DSC-TGA). The SEM tests results indicated the existence of Calcium Hydroxide (C-H) and Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (C-S-H) components in the microstructure. The C-S-H compositions were responsible components for modifications of concrete properties. On the other hand, the XRD test results ensured the existence of extra-phases in the concrete structure. Moreover, the TGA analysis showed maximum weight loss has been realized in reduced temperatures for unmodified concrete than modified concrete. The DSC curve in the graphs exhibits crystallizations of different components during exothermic heating process. This paper has been conducted to indicate the combined effects of TNPs and WPFs have better effects in enhancing the cracks-resistance behavior than individual components in the concrete. The combined effects in advance solved concrete properties with respect to strength and quality, and serviceability rather than being creating opportunity of sustainability and eco-friendly concrete materials. Keywords: Nanomaterials, TiO2 nanoparticles, Cracks-Resistant Behavior, Mechanical Strength, C-S-H gel
Trains play an important role in Development of any Nation. Trains are considered as a 'lifeline of Nation' in Countries like India. Populous countries like India USA and China have large Train Networks. Indian Railways runs 13,169 Passenger trains daily on a large network of 67,956km. IR has 16 divisions on the basis of Geographical location. To Manage the train networks and train we need a good train traffic management system.
dear Journal The Money Markets are the market for financial assets that have original maturities of one year or less. financial assets traded in this market include such instruments as U.S. Treasury bills, commercial paper, Banker's acceptance, federal agency discount paper, most certificate of deposit, repurchase agreement, floating agreement, and federal funds. the scope of the Money Market has expanded in recent years to include securitized products such as Mortgage-backed and asset-backed securities with short average lives. these securities, along with the derivative contacts associated with them, are the subject of this paper. the case is the state of Kuwait.
Presented is local driven solution to sustainable management of municipal solid waste in emerging economies. It is anchored on source separation and draws on the zone’s two strengths: abundance of cheap labour and abundance of organic waste fraction. It discusses the problems responsible for the zone's dismal performance, and puts forward a way out. The presentation next examines the zone’s solid waste features, including composition and characterization. This is followed by the material recovery phase. Finally examined is the energy recovery phase employing waste-to-energy technologies involving incineration, pyrolysis and biodegradation, to augment energy supply.
The study was conducted in Kellem Wollega Zone in Jimma Horro District, Oromia region; Ethiopia aims to assess beekeeping production systems and constraints from September 2018 to December 2019. Totally, 150 households were selected for the study. Semi structured questionnaire was prepared to collect primary data. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the results were organized by tables and graphs. Based on the survey result, about 97% of the respondents indicated there are different forage types of honey bees’ floras like shrubs, bushes, Nuge, Sunflower, cultivated crops herbs, weeds and some woody plants like Wanza, Koshem, Sesbania, Acacia and Tree Lucerne. The majority (90%) of the respondents obtained beekeeping by catching swarms. Honey was harvested twice a year from May to June and November to January. The survey result also indicated that beekeeping has a huge number of constraints that hinder honey bee production and profitability. The major constraints are pests and predators, Pesticides and herbicides application and swarming. The respondents indicated that, they have interest to improve beekeeping practices in the area. So the government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) should support by training them on how to manage honey bee flora, and providing modern honey bee equipment to enhance the honey productivity is also very important to enhance the products of beekeeping in the study area. Key words: Beekeeping production, Ethiopia.
This comprehensive research has been undertaken to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 in the hotel and restaurant industry. Amid temporary closures, introducing drive-thru, pick-up, third party deliveries, implementation of new technologies, and finally reopening, the restaurant industry and gone through ups and downs. Many restaurants could not afford to return to business and many lost track and employees. To evaluate the impact of COVID-19, this paper has discussed the three vital stages of the recent life of the restaurant - “Pre COVID-19”, “During COVID-19” and “After COVID-19”. The descriptive research has been conducted on independent restaurants to shed light on how COVID-19 has impacted them and also suggested the possible effects of survival. A variety of key themes have arisen from the findings. Firstly, the reopened hotels and restaurants workers have laid off or furloughed more than 50% of workers in Bangladesh. According to a National Restaurant Association study of the economic impact of the coronavirus crisis, the entire restaurant industry is forecast to sustain $240 billion in losses by the end of 2020. Secondly, contrary to previous research, we find that many small companies are financially weaker than before. Therefore, the purpose of this analysis is also to explore the potential effect of the COVID-19 in the hospitality sector due to the restricted movement, summarize the lessons that were learned from other similar epidemics and global crises, and exploring the potential steps towards recovery.
ABSTRACT The contains of ordinary Cane juice (OC) has chemical composition of cane juice: Sucrose, Glucose, Fructose, and Starch, Salts, Organic acids, Protein, Gums, Wax, Water: 60 - 70% 1), Bacteria2) and Fungi3). The ultrasonic cavitation technique and potensial Hydrogen (pH) detection of OC by: The dipped piezoelectric (“DP”), the floated liquid transducer of crude palmae oils (“FCPO”) or the floated liquid transducer of virgin coconut oils (VCO) and dipped piezoelectric (“FVCOP”) ware ultrasonic transducers in OC with 48 kHz, 5 Vpp, 5 Vdc, sinusoidal waves from function generator, the speed of sound in the air at 343 m/s, 20 oC4), that were stabilizing OC pH value after storage and the positive control was cane juice without ultrasonic exposured. The result of the OC pH in test tube at room temperature in difference transducers concepts: a. The OC pH graph in 0 – 3 hours for linier equation it turns out that “DP” is very highest than “FVCOP”, and “FVCOP” is high than “FCPO”, where “FCPO” is the same as “OC”, b. The OC pH graph after storage 1 – 5 days for exponential equation it turns out that “FVCOP” is first rangk than “FCPO” second rank, “DP” is third rank, and the “OC”is fourth rank. The “FVCOP” is good extractor and good intensity for OC, that process made normal pH of OC, and no microbes in OC. Key word: Cane juice, Piezoelectric, Crude Palmae oils, Virgin Coconud oils, Potensial Hidrogen, Ultrasonic.