The leaves of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Local name-Pinsein-net) were selected for this research. From the phytochemical tests of the crude extracts, the sample contains many chemical constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids, glycosides, reducing sugars, polyphenols, saponins and tannins respectively. The antimicrobial activities of the crude extracts of the sample were tested by Agar well diffusion method on six selected microorganisms such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomas aeruginosa, Bacillus pumilus, Candida albicans and E.coli. The compound (I) was isolated as pale yellow feather shape crystal by thin layer and column chromatographic separation techniques. In addition, the complete structure of flavonoid compound (I) was elucidated by applying 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as EI-Mass spectrometry. The name of the isolated compound could be assigned as 5-hydroxy-2-(4-(3-hydroxyphenoxy)-3-methoxyphenyl)-6, 7-dimethoxy-4H chromen-4-one.
In this research, the rinds of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) was chosen for dye extraction. The mineral contents of sample was analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluroescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy. The dye solution of sample was extracted by using aqueous method. Physical properties (pH, specific gravity, viscosity) of natural dye were determined by using AOAC official method. Two different mordants such as common salt and ash were used in the dyeing process. After that, the extracted dye was applied in dyeing of wool yarn, cotton cloth and silk cloth. Finally, rubbing fastness and washing fastness tests were used to predict the performance of dye in wool yarn, cotton cloth and silk cloth.
In this research work, a survey of liquid foundation makeup was carried out to choose research samples. During the survey, brands, price and volume of liquid foundation makeup were recorded. pH of the liquid foundation makeup samples were measured by using pH meter. Elemental analysis of liquid foundation makeup samples were performed by EDXRF (Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence) Spectrophotometer. Moreover elements that contain in liquid foundation makeup samples were determined by XGT (X-ray Guide Tube) Analytical Microscope. Furthermore volatile organic compounds were investigated by GCMS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) analysis.
In this study, the removal of lead by adsorption using charcoal of plum seed coats was conducted. The percent adsorptions of lead (II) ions on four different sizes of charcoal samples were determined. The optimum size (40 mesh) of the charcoal powder sample was observed on the basis of time duration to achieve the completeness and percent adsorption for lead ion. The FT-IR spectral measurements were done before and after adsorption of lead ion to know the efficiency of each particle size of the charcoal powder sample. The adsorption of Pb2+ on plum seed coats charcoal follows Freundlich isotherm. The straight line with value of slope equal to 1/n and log k as y-axis intercept was obtained. Lead is a highly toxic heavy metal and exposure to which can produce a wide range of adverse health effects. Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, molecules, or ions from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface charcoal from nut shells and husks are particularly good as adsorbents. Hence, the activated charcoals are now widely used to remove pollutants from waste water by adsorption processes.
Biogas is a renewable source of energy and organic fertilizer comes from natural waste materials. In this research, EM (Effective microorganism) solutions were prepared by four different conditions: (i) vegetable wastes only, (ii) vegetable wastes and soil, (iii) vegetable wastes, dung and (iv) vegetable wastes, dung and soil by anaerobic digestion. During the digestion, biogas was evolved. The amount of evolved biogas for all conditions was determined hr by hr and day by day till five days. Total amounts of biogas for five days in conditions 1 were found to be 13000mL, condition 2 was 3600mL, condition 3 was 8000mL, 29500mL and 20000mL in bat dung, cow dung and chicken dung, condition 4 was 6600mL, 13385mL and 10200mL respectively. The organic fertilizers were also prepared by using vegetable wastes, soil, dung, straw and EM solution under aerobic and anaerobic method. Moreover, physicochemical properties such as pH, moisture, available nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, organic carbon, carbon-nitrogen ratios of three prepared organic fertilizers(aerobic and anaerobic conditions) were determined revealing the values of pH 7.07,7.18, 7.17 and 7.16, 7.20, 7.18, moisture was 3.46%, 3.75%, 3.38% and 2.75%, 3.43%, 2.64%, available nitrogen was 1.69%, 1.09% 1.05% and 1.66%, 0.97%, 0.78%, available phosphorus was 1.41%, 1.65%, 1.33% and 1.33%, 1.59%, 1.15%, available potassium was 0.82%, 1.65%, 1.34% and 1.57%, 1.60%, 1.30%, organic carbon was 13.03%, 13.51%, 13.40% and 17.48%, 19.19%, 17.70%, carbon- nitrogen ratio was 7.71, 11.51, 9.96 and 10.53, 19.19, 12.76 which are based on aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The yield percent of these fertilizers of bat dung were found to be 50.56% and 46.21%, cow dung was 55.23% and 52.13%, chicken dung was 51.99% and 51.05%. The elemental contents were examined by using EDXRF Spectrometer. Keywords : EM solutions; biogas; prepared organic fertilizers; NPK; EDXRF
Carica papaya L. belongs to the family Caricaceae. Carica papaya L. were collected from Kyaukse township, Mandalay Region. Morphological, phytochemical, elemental analysis and antioxidant activities of Carica papaya L. were carried out, to get their correct identification. In morphological study, Carica papaya L. was perennial herbs and stem are unbranched, cylindrical. Leaves are simple, palmately lobed and inflorescence are axillary. Staminate flower and pistillate flower are unisexual and actinomorphic. Fruit is ellipsoid. Seed are many seeded and black. In the phytochemical studies in the leaves of Carica papaya L. showed the presence of a wide of secondary metabolites such as alkaloid, glycoside, flavonoid, phenol, polyphenol, saponin, tannin, and steroid. Lipophenol and reducing sugar are absent. From EDXRF data, psotassium, magnesium, calcium, sulfur, phosphorous, iron, manganese, strontium, titanium, zinc were present. Antioxidant activities of ethanol extract of papaya are investigated by DPPH free radical scavenging method. IC50 values of ethanol extract were 4.37 µg/mL.
Soybean (Glycine max L.) is one of the important food, oil and protein crop. The early days to nodule formation was observed in variety NARC-I under the sowing dates of 15th May and 1st June, and late days to nodule formation was observed in variety NARC-II under the sowing date of 30th June. The maximum days to leghae moglobium in nodules were observed in varieties NARC-I and NARC-II under the sowing date of 30th June and minimum in variety NARC-II under the sowing date of 30th June. The maximum days to due disappearance leghae moglobium in nodule were observed in Bragg and Bossier varieties under sowing of 15th June and minimum days to due disappearance leghae moglobium in nodule were recorded in NARC-I and NARC-II under sowing dates of 30th June and 15th May respectively. The maximum number of nodules plant-1 were recorded in variety Bossier under the sowing date of 30th June and minimum number of nodules plant-1 were recorded in variety NARC-II under the sowing date of 15th June respectively. The maximum plant height was recorded in variety Bossier under the sowing date of 30th June and minimum were sown on 15th May in variety Bragg. The early days to flowering were achieved (39.70 sown on 15th May in variety Bragg. The early days to maturity at were recorded under sowing date of 15th May in variety Bragg and late days to maturity were obtained in variety Bossier under sowing date of 30th June. The maximum number of branches plant-1 were observed in variety NARC-I and lowest number of branches plant-1 were obtained in variety Bossier under sowing date of 15th May. The maximum number of pods plant-1 were observed in variety Bragg and minimum number of pods plant-1 were recorded in variety Bossier under sowing date of 15th May. The highest seed index were observed in Bossier variety under sowing date of 15th May and lowest seed index was observed in variety NARC-II under sowing date of 15th May. The maximum seed yield in variety Bossier under sowing date of 15th May and minimum seed yield were achieved in variety NARC-II under sowing date of 30th June respectively. The highest oil content were obtained in variety Bragg under sowing date of 30th June, and minimum oil content was observed in variety Bossier sowing date of 15th May respectively. The highest leaf area index were recorded in variety Bragg under sowing date of 1st June and lowest in variety NARC-I under sowing date of 30st June and 15th June respectively. The maximum crop growth rate was observed in variety Bragg under sowing date of 30th June and minimum crop growth rate in variety NARC-I under sowing date of 15th May. The maximum net assimilation rate was observed in variety Bossier under sowing date of 1st June and minimum net assimilation rate was observed in varieties NARC-I under sowing date of 30th June. The highest leaf area was observed in variety Bossier under sowing date of 1th June, followed by in varieties Bragg and Bossier under sowing dates of 1st June and 15th May and lowest leaf area was achieved in variety NARC-II under sowing date of 15th June respectively.
One Myanmar indigenous medicinal plant, Ficus racemosa, locally known as Yea Thapan, belonging to the family Moraceae was selected for evaluation of preliminary phytochemical screening, elemental composition and isolation of some organic compounds. The preliminary phytochemical screening was performed using a standard procedures. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed that alkaloid, flavonoid, glycoside, steroid, polyphenol, phenolic compound, reducing sugar and saponin were present in the seeds of Ficus racemosa. The elemental composition of sample was investigated by Energy Dispersive X-rays Fluorescence (EDXRF) spectral data. Moreover, some organic compounds were isolated and purified from ethyl acetate by using thin layer and coloum chromatographic techniques. The prominent functional groups in some organic compounds were assigned by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectral data.
In this research, the stem of Gnetum gnemon L. (Local name-Hyin-byin) was used for the isolation and structure assignment of stilbenoid compound. From the phytochemical screening of the extracts of the sample, many phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, reducing sugars, lipophilics, polyphenols, tannins and phenolic compounds were present. The compound I was isolated as brown amorphous powder by thin layer and column chromatographic separation techniques. In addition, the complete structure of stilbenoid compound I was identified by applying 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as Mass spectrometry. The isolated stilbenoid compound was assigned as Gnetin C (dimer of resveratrol) from the comparison of 13C NMR spectral data with literature.
Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. belonging to the family Bignoniaceae is a species of flowering plant. Phytochemical screening and ele-mental analysis were performed on bark and fruits of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent. by using standard methods and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometer. And antimicrobial activities of ethanolic extract were tested by using agar well diffusion method on six selected organisms, such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus pumilus, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli.
In this research work, physicochemical analysis have been made on two soil samples collected from near Kan Pauk Village in Myingyan Township, Mandalay Region in Myanmar. The physical properties of soil samples, moisture, pH, texture, bulk, density, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the percentages of chloride, sulphate, calcium, magnesium and organic carbon were determined by the use of various titration methods. The mineral contents in two soil samples were determined by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) method.
In this research, Aloe vera and Noni fruits were collected from Mandalay Region. The dried samples were tested to study the phytochemical constituents.. Furthermore, Aloe vera wine and Noni wine were prepared with sugar and yeast. After 3 months, the physiochemical properties of wines ( Aloe vera and Noni) were determined by pH(3.4 and 3.1), alcohol content(6 and 5.3%), Total dissolved solid (TDS) ( 38 and 90 mgL-1), Total suspended solid (TSS) ( 22 and 53 mgL-1 ) and Total solid (TS)( 60 and 143 mgL-1) respectively. The reducing sugar content in Aloe vera wine and Noni wine (1.1 and 1.2 gL-1) were determined by using Rebelein Titration method. Vitamin C content of wines were determined by using Iodometric Titration method( 0.0316 and 0.064 gL-1). The antioxidant activities of wines were investigated by using DPPH radical scavenging method (107 and 95.031 µL/mL).
Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker and Curcuma comosa Roxb. belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker is known as the nannwin net or sannwin net (C1) in Myanmar. Curcuma comosa Roxb is known as the nannwin khar or sannwin khar (C2) in Myanmar. Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker and Curcuma comosa Roxb. were collected from Kyaukse township, Mandalay Region. Morphological, phytochemical and antioxidant activity of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker and Curcuma comosa Roxb. were carried out, to get their correct identification. In morphological study, this plants was perennial rhizomatous herbs. Leaves were simple and alternate. The aerial pseudo-stem formed by leaf-sheaths. Inflorescences was tubular spike, axillary, with 1-2 flowers. In the phytochemical studies in the rhizome of Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker showed the presence of alkaloid, glycoside, flavonoid, phenol, polyphenol, lipophenol, saponin, tannin, terpene, steroid but reducing sugar is absent and alkaloid, glycoside, flavonoid, phenol, polyphenol, lipophenol, saponin, tannin, terpene, steroid, reducing sugar are present in Curcuma comosa Roxb. IC50 values of the standard ascorbic acid was 41.9 g/mL and ethanol extract of C1 sample was 20.55 mg/mL and C2 sample was 3.22 mg/mL. The antioxidant activity of C1 and C2 sample were found to be lower than that of standard ascorbic acid.
In this paper, Dokhtawaddy River Sediments samples 1(RS-1), River Sediments sample 2(RS-2), River Sediments sample 3 (RS-3) and River Sediments sample 4 (RS-4) were collected from Mandalay region and analyzed to determine the elemental concentration by using Energy dispersive x-rays fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis. It was found that there are 14 element oxides such as Al2O3, SiO2, Fe2O3, SO3, K2O, CaO, TiO2, Cr2O3, MnO, Fe2O3, CuO, ZnO, SrO, ZrO2 in the three River Sediment samples, The value of pH and conductivity were also measured. These result values were compared and discussed.
This research focuses on the study of nutritional composition of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.) seed and physicochemical characteristics of sacha inchi seed oil. The seeds of sacha inchi were collected from Pyinsa village, Pyinoolwin Township, Mandalay Region, Myanmar. The phytochemical investigation of seed sample indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, polyphenol, reducing sugar, carbohydrates, saponins, steroids and terpene whereas tannin was not detected. The nutritional values of sacha inchi seed were determined by AOAC method revealing the values of (3.30%) moisture, (8.63%) fiber, (24.80% ) protein, (14.40%) carbohydrate, (42.30% ) oil and (4.20%) ash based on dried sample. The oil extracted from sacha inchi seed was done with petroleum ether by using Soxhlet extraction method. The physicochemical parameters, such as specific gravity, acid value, saponification value, iodine value, peroxide value and unsaponifiable matter were determined by AOCS (American Oil Chemists Society) method revealing the values of (0.92 mg) specific gravity, (0.416 cP) viscosity, (190.85 mg KOH/g) saponification value,( 0.78%) unsaponifiable matter, (183.69) iodine value, (0.59 mg KOH/g) acid value and (2.00 milliequi peroxide oxygen/kg) peroxide value based on extracted seed oil. The mineral contents in seed sample were investigated by using EDXRF method. The minerals present in sacha inchi seed were K (0.7750%), P (0.5803%), Ca (0.2972%), S (0.1371%), Al (0.1020%),Cl (0.0288%), Zn (0.0059%) and Fe(0.0057%). Moreover, the fatty acid composition of sacha inchi seed oil was analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Sacha inchi oil contains a high level of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. Keywords : Sacha inchi, AOAC method, EDXRF, GC-MS, AOCS method
This paper proposes the new cumulative distributive function for density function for the chosen random variable “departing that (N-n) no. of persons in the system.”.
Abstract—Forged banknotes are becoming serious threats hampering smooth transactions in Ethiopia. Hence, Availability of such fake notes in the market needs the automation system. The banking industries in Ethiopia are unable to full fill the ATM’s intensively. Nevertheless, banks have not yet utilized a reliable recognition system to identify forged banknotes. This calls for the development of a better authenticity verification system. In this study, we have examined the color momentum, SIFT, GLCM, combination of SIFT, color and GLCM, and CNN as a feature extraction technique and FFANN as a classifier to design the Ethiopian banknote recognition system. The experimental result shows that the CNN feature registers 99.4% recognition accuracy in classifying Ethiopian banknote denomination. Again, for fake currency recognition, CNN feature outperformed the other feature extraction techniques with an accuracy level of 96.46 %. Therefore, it is recommended to study the CNN model by with an advanced architecture like GoogLeNet and ResNet with a larger dataset.